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Adults with Cerebral Palsy Have Higher Rates of Depression and Anxiety: Study

Since cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with children, much of the data consists of infants and young children. There is little information on difficulties that adults with cerebral palsy face as they get older. However, a recent study fills in this lack of data. Published in JAMA Neurology, it concluded that adults with cerebral palsy are more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety.

The study                               

baby-in-womb-300x160Conducted by British, American, and Irish researchers, they utilized data from the United Kingdom’s Clinic Practice Research Datalink primary care database. Their data spans the years 1987 to 2015. They examined 1,705 adults, ages 18 to 99, with cerebral palsy who were also diagnosed with depression and anxiety. Each adult was compared to three adults without CP. These individuals were chosen for having the same age, gender, and primary care practice as adults with CP. The data covers about 7% of the country’s population. It consists of clinical events, prescriptions, referrals, and hospital admissions.

The results showed that people with CP were more likely to have depression and anxiety than those without. They were 28% more likely to be diagnosed with depression, and 40% more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety. Researchers speculate that individuals with CP have physiological, psychological, social, and health-related issues linked to depression and anxiety. This includes increased pain, limited functions, and socialization difficulties. The scientists also note that pain and fatigue, common adults with CP, are also linked to poor mental health.

Norwegian study

The JAMA Neurology is not the only study conducted on cerebral palsy and mental health. In 2013, Norwegian scientists published a study on screening the mental health of children with CP. They concluded that their study supports “previous literature indicating a high prevalence of mental health problems in children with CP.” Their cohort consisted of children with CP born between the years 2001 and 2003. The scientists evaluated the children’s mental health by providing the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ asks children to determine whether or not certain psychological problems apply to them. These include hyperactivity, conduct, emotional, and peer problems. The control group consisted of the Bergen Child Study (BCS) which utilized SDQ to survey all the children in the Norwegian cities of Bergen and Sund.

According to the results, children with CP had higher mean scores across the board compared to the control group. The mean scores were especially high for hyperactivity and peer problems. Children with CP reportedly had symptoms of more than one mental health issue. The study reported that 57% of children fit the criteria for psychiatric disorders. Due to the results, the researchers recommend the establishment of mental health services for children with cerebral palsy. While the study focuses on children, it provides context on possible psychological issues children with CP may experience once they reach adulthood.

Other causes of mental health issues

Causes of mental health issues in adults with CP can also be social. Their disability may affect their ability to be employed and interact with others, especially those who do not have CP. Adults with CP have lower employment rates than the general population. They are also more likely to experience more loneliness than those without CP. Adults with CP also experience significant stigma in seeking help for their condition. These issues make it difficult to live a “normal” life, which impacts their own mental well-being.

While these factors may impact one’s mental health, much of this is speculation due to the lack of information on this topic. Cerebral palsy has historically been perceived as a childhood condition. However, it is a lifelong condition with no cures. Depending on how mild the condition is, adults with CP can expect to have a similar life expectancy as an adult without it. This makes it necessary to conduct more research on cerebral palsy’s effects on adults. The research can be used to provide better care to help adults with CP become well-adjusted.

Little information means few services

The dearth of information on how cerebral palsy affects an individual as they get older affects the level of services provided for adults with cerebral palsy. A study of Australian and Asian-educated medical students concluded that many of them knew little about the condition and had negative views of those with CP. This shows that both medical students and the public at large must be educated on cerebral palsy. Doing this would improve both mental and physical health services for adults with CP. Specialized care is easily accessible to children but more difficult to find the older they get. Improving physical health is crucial, but so is mental health as both affect one another.